Augusta is located at the head of navigation of the Kennebec River, about 60 miles (95 km) northeast of Portland. It has been the capital of Maine since 1832. It is also a center of tourism and agribusiness. Industries such as lumber, paper products, textiles, shoes, and publishing once played a major role in the city's economy.
Pilgrims from the Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts established a trading post here in 1628. Permanent settlement grew up around Fort Western, which was built on the site of the trading post in 1754. Augusta was chartered as a town in 1797 and as a city in 1849. It was named for the daughter of a Revolutionary War general, Henry Dearborn.