The largest city in New Brunswick, Saint John was the first city in Canada to be incorporated. It is located 585 miles east of Montreal where the Saint John River empties into the Bay of Fundy. Huge bay tides cause the famous Reversing Falls to flow in both directions daily. The site of Saint John was first visited by Europeans with the arrival of Samuel de Champlain on St. John’s Day (June 24), 1604. A fort was established there by the French in 1631 until 1700, then again by the English after 1758. Traders settled here in 1762, but the city’s modern development began with the arrival of Loyalist refugees from the nascent United States in 1783. The city was incorporated in 1785. A major fire in 1877 destroyed about half the city, with the result that new construction was done in brick. The seat of Saint John county, the city’s chief industries are shipping and shipbuilding and repair.