Dubuque is a port, commercial, and industrial city on the Mississippi River, 150 miles northeast of Des Moines opposite the Wisconsin-Illinois border. Notable industries include agricultural machinery, meat packing, metalworking, and woodworking. Lumbering was a major industry in the 19th Century. The business section lies along the river, while the residential areas occupy rocky bluffs some 300 feet above. The first European settler was Jean Dubuque, a French Canadian adventurer who gained permission from the Indians to begin mining lead here in 1788. The town itself was settled following the 1833 end of the Black Hawk War. Dubuque has been the seat of Dubuque County since its creation in 1834.