Pine Bluff is located on the Arkansas River about 45 miles (72 km) southeast of Little Rock. It is situated on a bluff on the south bank of the river, surrounded by forests of pine, oak, and gum trees. The trading center for southeastern Arkansas, it is an industrial center and a market for agriculture, especially cotton and cotton by-products. The city is home to the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff and is the seat of Jefferson County. Founded as a trading post in 1819, it was incorporated as a city in 1885.